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London in the frame to host Olympics as Japan bid probed over secret payments Olympic Game Bid' to the Singapore-based Black Tidings company Former Met police chief calls for doping to be criminalised. The main stadium for the Olympics in London cost just of Japanese contractors and meets the budget set by the Japan Sports Council. Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and Tokyo Olympic delegation members . The Olympics in London spent five times its bid; the Olympics in Athens, Tokyo residents put up black curtains to shut out the blinding all-night . About FP · Meet the Staff · Reprint Permissions · Advertise/Events.
By Marchan estimated 70 percent of Japanese favored hosting the games in Unlike the Games, the IOC saw Tokyo as a safe bet for compared to the other two final candidates: Money may have played a role: An aerial view of the holy Meiji Shrine and the planned site for the national stadium in Tokyo, June And last but not least was the construction of new sewers, allowing excrement to be flushed rather than scooped.
A vacant lot is prepared for the construction of the new national stadium for the Tokyo Olympic Games on Nov. The original stadium, designed by renowned architect Zaha Hadid, was so large that it threatened to dwarf the quiet surroundings of Meiji Jingu forest, considered a sacred sanctuary by many Tokyoites. After accusations that the Japanese Olympics logo was plagiarized from a Belgian designer, Tokyo dropped the logo, seen in this July 24, photo.
Flickr Architect Kengo Kuma explains his design for a much more modest stadium on Dec. People believe I am responsible for the plan. I am very annoyed about that. Recent history does not provide much comfort for coming in on budget either; this is worrying for a country struggling with a huge national debt.
The Olympics in London spent five times its bid; the Olympics in Athens, a whopping 16 times its bid, according to one estimate — an act of financial mismanagement that contributed to bankrupting Greece several years later.
And yet, the outlook for cannot yet be considered dire if the Games preparations are anything to go by. And it was a mere year and a half before the games began that somebody could be persuaded to head the Olympic Organizing Committee.
The National Gymnasium complex under construction in Tokyo on June 6,just a few months before the games were to begin. And bigger still was the issue of how to handle the anomalous severe water shortage in Tokyo that year. As the summer of began, the municipal government instituted water rationing. So severely did Tokyoites feel the water shortage that even soba shops cut down their cooking. As the games approached, construction rose to a frenzied pitch. Tokyo residents put up black curtains to shut out the blinding all-night work lights and climbed into their futons wearing ear plugs to block out the incessant noise of the pile drivers and bulldozers.
Just a few weeks before the games began, the clanging and the tumult gradually faded away, and New Tokyo, with its long, smooth stretches of highways, began to appear. That land had previously been the site of a barracks and parade ground for the Japanese Imperial Army, and was then occupied by U. As ofthere were tens of thousands of American soldiers still stationed on Japanese soil under the U. Left- and right-wing groups viewed the return of the Yoyogi Park land to Tokyo as the central site for the Olympics as an especially welcome gift by both, who longed for the day when all the Americans would pack up and go home.
Less than 10 days before the Olympics began, the crowning glory of the Olympic effort that had nothing to do with the games — the Japanese bullet train — finally started operations between Tokyo and Osaka. The Shinkansen reached peak speeds of miles per hour, making them the fastest trains in the world, and were so punctual that people could set their watches by them. Haneda Airport, where the Olympic visitors would land, was refurbished into a gleaming showpiece and a futuristic monorail would whisk them into town.
But not quite everything was finished.
Only two of the eight main expressways were fully completed, with two more only partially constructed. Bedrooms and public restrooms, still too few in number, were made up for in part with floating hotels parked in Tokyo Bay and a fleet of mobile public toilets. Etiquette training was also ongoing. Pilots created five majestic Olympic rings in the sky.
Yoshinori Sakai, born in Hiroshima on the day the atomic bomb was dropped, carried the torch up the stairs to light the Olympic flame; Emperor Hirohito stood erect as teams from 93 nations marched in.
Olympic athletes circle the track during the opening ceremony at the Meiji Olympic Park, The world had just been introduced to a new Japan, a peaceful democracy that would soon become an economic power.
For Tokyoites, the Olympic success was doubly important because their city had been transformed from a struggling backwater into a shiny international metropolis pulsing with new glamour. Indeed, as if to confirm its new status to the world, Tokyo was selected shortly afterwards to be the chic location for what would become among the most famous James Bond movies, You Only Live Twice. Neon signs near the Shimbashi train station in the fashionable Ginza district of Tokyo, To complete construction of the Shinkansen, funds were sucked away from other projects — like the monorail that was meant to connect Haneda Airport and the city center.
Instead of terminating at a more convenient location, like Tokyo Station or Shimbashi, it ended several stops short, in Hamamatsucho. The argument that the Japanese used, to promote Tokyo for the Olympics, was that only by staging the games in Japan, the most modern country of the non-Western world, would the Olympic movement become international.
2020 Summer Olympics
This was a powerful argument that appealed to many members of the Olympic organisation. Japan earned the games also by the achievements of its athletes. In the Berlin Olympiad, which took place shortly after Tokyo had been chosen for the games, Japanese athletes won 44 medals, including six gold medals p.
These victories and world records won Japan the praise of the whole world. In their efforts to promote Tokyo, the Japanese resorted to unprecedented tactics. Japanese diplomats lobbied foreign governments, especially those of Italy and Great Britain, to persuade their Olympic committees to withdraw the candidacies of their cities from the race.
This enraged the Italian National Olympic Committee, which possessed the right to make such decisions, but the committee had to abide by the will of the Duce pp. Japan also used monetary incentives to promote its case. In Decemberthe Tokyo City Assembly allocated one million yen half a million US dollars to subsidise the travel of athletes and officials to the Tokyo Olympiad p. Baillet-Latour was greatly impressed by what he saw and heard and returned home as an enthusiastic supporter of the Tokyo games pp.
The IOC claimed that its decisions were based purely on sport considerations and had nothing to do with politics, but the selection of Berlin and Tokyo as the venues of the Olympic Games in and enabled Nazi Germany, and almost enabled militarist Japan, to use these games as a propaganda tool of their authoritarian and militaristic regimes.
Avery Brundage, the president of the American Olympic Committee inrejected the demands of Jewish groups in his country to boycott Hitler's Olympiad, on the grounds that 'sports is above politics' pp. The choice of Tokyo, in Julyas the venue of the games caused a great sensation in Japan. The streets were decorated with Japanese and Olympic flags, fireworks were lit, congratulatory slogans were displayed, and commemorative stamps were issued to celebrate the occasion p.
But it soon turned out that the Japanese could not make up their minds on important issues concerning the games. The first problem was the location of the Olympic Stadium. When Baillet-Latour visited Tokyo, he was deeply impressed by the serene beauty of that site. But after Tokyo had been chosen, the Home Ministry and the Shrine Bureau objected to that plan, claiming that the boisterous stadium would disturb the sanctity of the gardens dedicated to the spirits of the Meiji Emperor and his wife.
After a long debate, which dragged on for two years, the government decided, contrary to the wishes of the IOC president, to construct the central stadium in the Komazawa district of the capital pp. Another controversy surrounded the route of the Olympic flame. The custom of bringing the fire from Olympia in Greece to the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games by relay, was started with the Berlin Olympics, at that time to symbolise that Nazi Germany was the successor of ancient Greece.
This new tradition struck roots and has continued until today. The planners of the relay recommended that the relay, which would span 10, km, should be conducted by horse riders and runners and should follow the ancient Silk Road. But the Japanese did not like the idea of the Central Asian route which would cross China, and suggested instead that one of their warships carry the torch from Greece to Japan.
Later, the Japanese proposed that the Olympic flame be carried by an airplane called 'kamikaze' along a South Asian route. Another problem was the emperor's role in the opening ceremony. According to the Olympic rules, the head of the host state officially opens the games.
But the Japanese emperor at that time was considered to be too sacred to have his voice transmitted electronically by microphone, loudspeaker or radio pp. Collins shows how difficult it was to transplant the Western traditions and practices of the Olympic Games into the political and cultural context of pre-war Japan, and how difficult it was for the Japanese to decide how to present their 'Asian' traditions and values to the Western world through the Olympic Games. Obtaining consensus on these issues in pre-war Japan was almost an impossible goal, with the military, the bureaucracy, the Olympic Committee, and the public pulling in different directions.
Under these circumstances it became questionable whether the Tokyo Olympic Games would ever take off. But what finally sealed their fate was the expanding war in China, which had broken out in July At first, the Japanese hoped that the hostilities would end in a short time and they would be able to stage the Olympic Games as scheduled.
But as the war situation intensified and required more and more lives and materiel, the prospects of the games started to look dim.
The financial allocations for the Olympiad were gradually curtailed, and voices were heard that it was inappropriate to host such a festive event at a time when Japanese young men were dying on the battlefields. Although there had been earlier calls in the United States and Britain to boycott the Tokyo Olympics, in protest of Japan's aggression in China, the cancellation of the games was made by the Japanese themselves.
Are the Tokyo Olympics in Trouble? – Foreign Policy
The IOC president Baillet-Latour insisted until the last moment that the games should be held as scheduled, explaining that he opposed the boycott of Tokyo 'with the same arguments I used to fight the Jewish campaign in ' p. The cancellation of the Tokyo Olympics did not bring about the cancellation of the 2,th anniversary of the foundation of the empire. On the contrary, relieved from the need to host a multitude of Western athletes and to perform problematic Western ceremonies, the Japanese celebrated the kigen of on a grand scale in a solemn and traditional way.
A 'sacred fire', brought by relay from Kashihara Shrine dedicated to Emperor Jimmu in Nara Prefecture, ignited the flame at the Meiji Shrine Outer Gardens, where the central ceremony took place pp. After the war, the Olympic Games were resumed, with London hosting them inHelsinki inand Melbourne in In Mayshortly after the end of the Allied Occupation of Japan, the governor of Tokyo submitted the candidacy of his city for the summer games.
But Rome, which had competed with Tokyo for the Olympics in the past, won.