A Brief History of the Colony of New York,
The Province of New York (–) was a British proprietary colony and later royal colony . New York was the last of the English colonies to have an assembly. The assembly passed the Province of New York constitution on October The English stamped their mark on New York nearly from the moment they took over the settlement from the Dutch in , quickly renaming the former New. NEW YORK COLONYNEW YORK COLONY began as the Dutch trading outpost of New Netherland in Source The English captured the colony in , though a complete ousting of Dutch rule did not occur until 10 Indian Relations.
Inthe first of seven ships loaded with colonists, supplies, and livestock was dispatched by the newly formed Dutch West India Company to establish the colony of New Netherland.
Province of New York
Settling multiple forts along the Hudson River, including Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island and Fort Nassau which would later become Fort Orange at present-day Albany, the Dutch hoped New Netherland would become a prosperous farming and fur-trading colony. The new colony developed slowly as the Dutch West India Company tried to populate New Netherland with a plan called patroonships. Patroonships were land grants given to anyone who, at their own expense, brought 50 people to settle on their patroon in the colony within four years.
The system was unpopular because the company still retained rights to the fur and fishing trades, and very few patroons were successful. The principal economic activity on Manhattan Island and along the lower Hudson River was farming, which often brought the colonists into conflict with Native Americans over land disputes. Initially, the Company tried to avoid such conflict as they purchased land from the native peoples.
In Peter Minuit, the first Director-General of New Netherland, reportedly purchased the island of Manhattan from local American Indians with beads and other trinkets worth 60 Dutch guilders before formally founding the settlement of New Amsterdam on the southern tip of the island near Fort Amsterdam. Fort Orange hosted the majority of the fur trade business for New Netherland. For the first few years, the company attempted to steer a middle course between the Mohicans, an Algonquian-speaking tribe, and the Mohawks, one of the nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, as the two groups battled for control of the area.
After a Mohawk attack on the Mohicans inhowever, the Mohicans lost access to the Dutch traders. Meanwhile, the growth of the colony had stagnated. Ownership of the colony was concentrated in the hands of a few wealthy persons. The company's monopoly on the economic life of New Netherland was eroding. The Indians found themselves not satisfied.
They thirsted for further revenge, and the war was renewed. The Dutch, however, had no competent leader. They therefore engaged the services of Captain John Underhill, one of the bravest men of his day, but who had been banished from Massachusetts for his religious eccentricities.
With one hundred and twenty men, Underhill met and attacked and routed the Indians, on Long Island, and at Strickland Plains, Horseneck.
At length, after the war had continued two years, both Dutch and Indians became weary of the contest. At this time, the Mohawks stepped In, and claimed sovereignty over all the tribes in the neighborhood of Manhattan, and through their influence, these tribes made peace with the Dutch in Such was the joy diffused through the colony at this event, that a general Thanksgiving was observed.
Kieft, the author of much of the blood which had been shed, had infamy is attached to his life.
His conduct was reprobated both at home and abroad. Deprived of his office, he left, some time after, for Europe, in a richly-laden ship; but before reaching his destination, his vessel was engulfed in the briny waters, and the guilty Kieft perished: He was a brave officer, who had served as viceroy in one of the West India Islands; a scholar of some learning, and an honest man. His policy toward the Indians was marked by kindness; in consequence of which, a more peaceable disposition prevailed among them.
But the controversy of the Dutch with other parties still continued. InStuyvesant went to Hartford, to demand a full surrender of the lands on the Connecticut River.
After several days spent in controversy, it was agreed that Long Island should be divided: The Dutch were compelled to relinquish the lands on the Connecticut River, excepting those of which they then held actual possession; and these were some time after isolated.
On the Delaware River, the Swedes made strenuous efforts to maintain their power; but in Stuyvesant sailed, with six hundred men, for their reduction, and in this enterprise he was successful. The Swedish power was annihilated. Some of the colonists, with their governor, Rising, returned to Europe; others removed to Maryland and Virginia. The rest, taking an oath of allegiance to Holland, continued on their lands, under Dutch rule.
Ina sudden eruption was made by the Indians upon the village of Esopus, now Kingston, ninety miles above New York on the Hudson. Sixty-five of the inhabitants were either killed or made captives. But the Indians suffered greatly in return, by means of a force sent up from New Amsterdam, which laid waste to their fields, and killed many of their warriors.
In December, a truce was proclaimed, and the captives taken by the Indians were released.
How Did English Rule Impact Colonial New York? | Synonym
In the following May, a treated of peace was concluded. But the government of the Dutch over New Netherlands was now drawing to a close. The English had never ceased to regard the territory as belonging to them, by virtue of its discovery by Hudson, as an Englishman, but still more on the ground of the first discovery of the continent, by Cabot. The duke was not slow to assert his claim. He fitted out a squadron, consisting of four frigates and three hundred men, under command of Sir Robert Nichols, who immediately sailed for New Amsterdam.
On entering the harbor, Stuyvesant addressed him a letter, desiring to know the reason of his approach. To this Nichols replied, the next day, by a summons to surrender. Stuyvesant, determining on a defense, refused to surrender; but, at length, finding himself without the means of resistance, and that many of the people were desirous of passing under the jurisdiction of the English, he surrendered the government into the hands of Colonel Nichols, who promised to secure to the governor and inhabitants their liberties and estates, with all the privileges of English subjects.
The jurisdiction of the territory having thus passed into the hands of the English, New Amsterdam was changed to New York, and Fort Orange received the name of Albany.
Long Island, notwithstanding that it had been long before granted to the Earl of Sterling, the duke purchased; and it became and since continued, part of New York. Colonel Nichols now assumed the government, in the name of the Duke of York, and continued in office for a little more than three years. His administration was marked by moderation, yet the people were allowed no representation, but he himself exercised both legislative and executive power. Contrary to all right, however, the titles to lands held by the Dutch they were compelled to renew at exorbitant charges, which went to the profit of the governor.
Nichols resigned to Governor Lovelace inwhoso administration corresponded, in its essential features, to that of his predecessor; but a remonstrance of the people to taxation without representation he ordered to be dealt with by the common hangman.
Induring the administration of Lovelace, war was declared by England against Holland; upon which, in the following year, a small Dutch squadron was sent against New York. Lovelace being absent at the time of its arrival, August 9th, the city was surrendered, by Captain Manning, without firing a gun, or otherwise attempting to defend the place. For this he was tried, condemned, and cashiered.
On March 24, Tryon County was formed out of Albany County. Charlotte County was formed out of Albany County. It was renamed Washington County in Easing the transition to British rule, the Articles of Capitulation guaranteed certain rights to the Dutch; among these were: The New Netherland claim included western parts of present-day Massachusetts to an extent that varied depending on whether the reference was the States General claim of all lands as far east as Narragansett Bay or the Treaty of Hartford negotiated by the English and Dutch colonies in but not recognized by either the Dutch or English governments putting the new province in conflict with the Massachusetts charter.
In general terms, the charter was equivalent to a conveyance of land conferring on him the right of possession, control, and government, subject only to the limitation that the government must be consistent with the laws of England.
The Duke of York never visited his colony and exercised little direct control of it. He elected to administer his government through governors, councils, and other officers appointed by himself. No provision was made for an elected assembly. Also inthe Duke of York gave the part of his new possessions between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to Sir George Carteret in exchange for settlement of a debt.
Interritories between the Byram River and Connecticut River were split off to become the western half of Connecticut. Francis Lovelace was next appointed Governor and held the position from May until the return of the Dutch in July A second grant was obtained by the Duke of York in July to perfect his title.
Dongan was empowered, on the advice of William Pennto summon " New York was the last of the English colonies to have an assembly. The assembly passed the Province of New York constitution on October 30, the first of its kind in the colonies. This constitution gave New Yorkers more rights than any other group of colonists including the protection from taxation without representation.
On November 1,the government was reorganized, and the state was divided into twelve countieseach of which was subdivided into towns.
Ten of those counties still exist see abovebut two Cornwall and Dukes were in territory purchased by the Duke of York from the Earl of Stirlingand are no longer within the territory of the State of New York, having been transferred by treaty to Massachusetts. While the number of counties has been increased to 62, the pattern still remains that a town in New York State is a subdivision of a county, similar to New England.
An act of the assembly in naturalized all those of foreign nations then in the colony professing Christianity. To encourage immigration, it also provided that foreigners professing Christianity may, after their arrival, be naturalized if they took the oath of allegiance as required.
The Duke's Laws established a non-denominational state church. When James ascended the throne in February and became King James IIhis personally owned colony became a royal province. However, in Aprilwhen news arrived that King James had been overthrown in the Glorious RevolutionBostonians overthrew their government and imprisoned Dominion Governor Edmund Andros.
A new governor Henry Sloughter arrived in March He had Jacob Leisler arrested, tried, and executed.
Colony Of New York
New York's charter was re-enacted in and was the constitution of the province until the creation of the State of New York. The first newspaper appeared weekly in During Queen Anne's War with France from tothe province had little involvement with the military operations, but benefited from being a supplier to the British fleet.
New York militia participated in two abortive attacks on Quebec in and Black slaves[ edit ] In the s, New York City was the largest importer of the colonies of slaves and a supply port for pirates.