Friendly relationship: Synonyms in English
Synonyms of friendship - relationship, friendly relationship, close relationship, attachment, mutual attachment. Have relations is a less common way of saying sleep with. or graphic, and can be used in most friendly situations without offending anyone. thesaurus. think. thinker thought thoughtful thrive throat thumb of,. the·sau·rus 10 informal having a very close, friendly relationship. n.
Second, the outcome of the quantitative research is presented. Each subchapter deals with one of the six adjectives and then a comparison between the definitions is drawn. Nice is, moreover, described via friendly, kind, pleasant. Further explanation is given through the concept of attractiveness and pleasure.
The Collins American Dictionary CAD also states the near-synonym pleasant and the notion of attractiveness as definitions for nice. Similar to the CAD, it states being exact, precise as synonyms for nice and it uses the near-synonym kind to define it.
In all three dictionary entries they use near-synonyms to describe the most frequent use of nice. The CAD and the MWD also stress a different usage of nice, for example, nice as precise and making accurate distinctions with particular instruments, e. However, in none of the entries is explained whether the adjective is rather used for 12 describing objects or human beings. Therefore, one may conclude that it is commonly used with both.
The CAD follows this definition and states sympathetic and the near-synonym friendly as explanations. The MWD also stresses the notion of kind as having a sympathetic and helpful nature. All three dictionaries stress the same aspects and they imply that kind is the characteristic of an animate being.
Although, kind is used frequently in the definition of nice, the near-synonym nice does not appear in the description of kind. The MWD uses a very similar definition and includes the notion of attractiveness. None of the dictionary entries specify whether lovely is rather used to describe humans, actions or places. The entry also focuses on liking each other and behaving as a friend which was also used in the definition of nice.
Only the MD stresses that friendly is used also in connection with places or situations, the CAD and the MWD imply that the word is rather used to modify nouns denoting human beings. The CAD stresses that gorgeous means of excessively good quality. These two definitions are combined in the MWD and the near-synonym pleasant is 13 also used to describe it. Particularly striking is that gorgeous is the only word in the set of near-synonyms which indicates the notion of beauty.
The CAD focuses on the notion of agreeableness which is expressed by pleasant. The entry of the MWD is again a combination of both preceding definitions. It stresses that pleasant might be used for articulating agreeableness, pleasing behaviour and friendliness.
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The following table Table 3 illustrates this phenomenon; the first column states the near- synonym in question and the X in the following columns signifies which near-synonyms are used to define the word in the first column. Near-synonyms explicitly stated in the definitions nice kind lovely friendly gorgeous pleasant nice X X X kind X lovely X friendly X gorgeous X pleasant X The table suggests that nice is explicitly defined through the near-synonyms kind, friendly and pleasant.
Kind is usually explained through the neighbouring word friendly. Lovely and friendly, however, are usually described via the near-synonym nice. Whereas the meaning of gorgeous is exemplified via pleasant, the dictionary entries of pleasant rather use friendly as explanation. The most salient observation of the comparison is that neither lovely nor gorgeous are used explicitly in the definitions of the other near-synonyms. Therefore, they are likely to share less peripheral semantic traits with the other near-synonyms.
The most 14 frequently stated near-synonym in the definitions of the words is friendly. This could indicate that the meaning of friendly is the most diverse and, consequently, is more interchangeable. Of course, the table is an overgeneralization; nevertheless, it helps to identify which words of the group of near-synonyms might have a closer relationship and therefore, might be more synonymous and interchangeable.
In the next step, the collocations of the near-synonyms are analysed via the corpus research to verify or falsify these assumptions. First, the results of the overall frequency pattern of the near-synonyms are stated. The second subchapter comprises the results of the nominal collocation analysis measured by raw frequency. Third, the results of the analysis of the collocating nouns measured by MI-score are articulated.
Then, the previous results are compared, interpreted and combined with the dictionary definitions. The last subchapter summarises the results of the investigation of the stylistic variation of the near-synonyms. A large variation in frequency can be observed between nice and kind, whereas friendly, lovely and pleasant show rather similar frequencies. The most frequently occurring near-synonym in the COCA is has also the one with the highest number of different types types and the least frequently occurring word of the set of near-synonyms has also the smallest number of different types 8 types.
Table 4 states the near-synonyms and their number of tokens as presented via the COCA. Frequency of the six adjectives nice friendly lovely pleasant gorgeous kind 23, 5, 4, 3, 1, However, the total frequency information does not give any account of the usage patterns of the adjectives and their differences in meaning. Therefore, the next step of the quantitative analysis includes the examination of the collocations.
Since adjectives are used to describe nouns attributively or predicatively, the collocation query was set to zero nouns before the node and four nouns after the node. This was the maximum span to treat an item as collocate.
Moreover, I set the minimum frequency to ten to reduce the amount of results. The query syntax was successful for five out of six near-synonyms; only for the near-synonym kind the query was not appropriate since COCA also included prepositions and the adjective itself in the results.
Therefore, two of the types for kind had to be eliminated.
Synonyms and Antonyms for friendly-relationship | teenbooks.info
Consequently, there were only six instead of eight collocating nouns see chapter 6. Furthermore, this circumstance had consequences for the development of top lists, namely, the top lists of the nominal collocations measured by raw frequencies only contain six items in order to compare them more easily. Table 5 states the top six of the nominal collocations of the six adjectives and the number of tokens.
Nice, kind and friendly share one nominal collocation people ; nice, lovely and gorgeous also have one noun in common day. Lovely, friendly and pleasant have one overlapping noun as well face.
Nice and kind share another nominal collocate man and lovely and gorgeous have even two collocating nouns alike woman, girl. Furthermore, lovely and gorgeous share the same most frequent nominal collocation woman.
This might indicate that their semantic 16 traits are fairly similar. The top list of pleasant has the fewest number of overlaps, it shares only one nominal collocate face ; this might imply that pleasant is the least interchangeable word in respect to the other near-synonyms.
However, in the qualitative analysis of the dictionary entries of the six-adjectives was suggested that gorgeous was the least intersubstitutable near-synonym due to the fact that it was not used in any of the definitions of the neighbouring words.
There is an obvious discrepancy between the qualitative and the quantitative analysis. In all probability, the further steps of the quantitative analysis will eliminate the inconsistency.
Based on the top lists of the nouns which are modified most frequently by the six adjectival near-synonyms, I categorised the nominal collocates into lexical patterns. The top six nouns measured by raw frequencies were divided into 5 semantic or lexical groups: The categorisation of the nouns is included in Table 6. Categorisation of the top 36 nouns modified by the six adjectives into lexical patterns denoting human indefinite items time-related body-related nature beings guy things day eyes fire people thing face hill man words smile place person way hair road woman relations wife surprise girl experience lady The vaguest category is, presumably, the group of the indefinite items.
Indefinite in this categorisation includes the notion of abstract senses or non-tangible items. Although the consequences of relations, surprises and experiences are often tangible and concrete, they do 17 not refer to concrete objects but to abstract, indefinite concepts. Apparently, another odd categorisation is the classification of road into the lexical pattern of nature. Although, roads are human-made objects and, consequently, challenge the connotation of wild and unspoilt nature, they occur outside in nature.
Closer examination of the top nominal collocate of friendly showed that fire should not have been categorised into the lexical pattern of nature since it belongs to the compound word friendly fire which is actually used in the context of armies and wars. This raises another question whether compound words should be included in the analysis of collocation or not. Moreover, the fact that only one of the six near-synonyms only friendly may collocate with friendly in friendly fire collocates with this specific noun shows a clear semantic and usage connection Liu The lexical patterns in reference to the adjectival near-synonyms reveal some interesting points.
First of all, it is striking to observe the collocational nouns of nice and lovely. They denote human beings. The nouns modified by nice refer to males except people and the nouns describe by lovely to females.
Second, it seems remarkable that day is the only time- related nominal collocation; however, it occurs frequently with three of the near-synonyms nice, lovely and gorgeous. The third noticeable aspect is that the body-related nominal collocations rather form part of the face than of the whole body.
The analysis of the nominal collocations of the six adjectival near-synonyms revealed some interesting insights to the usage patterns. The query syntax was the 18 same which I used for the raw frequencies zero nouns before the node and four nouns after the nodehowever, the results were sorted by relevance which is the term in the COCA for the MI-score. The collocation analysis for the six adjectival near-synonyms measured by the MI-score ejected completely different nouns than the measurement with raw frequencies.
Although there were only three different types with an MI-score above three for kind, the top list of the other adjectives will contain six nouns since they will later be compared with the top list of the nominal collocates measured by raw frequency.
Table 7 depicts the top results of the nominal collocation analyses measured by MI-score. Top lists of nouns modified most frequently by each of the six adjectives measured by MI-score nice kind lovely friendly gorgeous pleasant doggie words ladies banter hunk surprises 6. This indicates that each adjectival near- synonym has its specific nominal collocations, which the definitions of the adjectives in the dictionaries should include since it is an evidence that the presumable adjectival near- synonyms are not at all intersubstitutable but have their fixed collocations and expressions.
Again based on the top lists of the nouns which are modified most frequently by the six adjectival near-synonyms, I categorised the nominal collocates into lexical patterns. The top six nouns measured by MI-score were divided into different categories than those measured by raw frequencies.
Since there are not time-related nouns, this category was eliminated. The lexical groups are: Table 8 depicts the results of the categorisation. Categorisation of the top 33 nouns modified by the six adjectives into lexical patterns denoting human indefinite items body-related nature relationship: Closer examination of the context of the nominal collocate guideline of the near-synonym nice showed that the COCA stored numerous texts in which a magazine called Nice clinical guidelines was quoted.
Since it is proper noun it can be doubted that it should be included in the collocation analysis. However, it gives an account of the definition of nice as accurate and precise and I will, therefore, involve it in my further investigations. The other observation gained by the analysis of the nominal collocate bones of the near-synonym lovely was that the COCA included text samples which quoted the book and film The Lovely Bones.
I will not mention this nominal collocate in my further analysis. First, the top lists of nice are considered and compared. Top lists of nice measured by raw frequency and MI-score raw frequency MI-score guy doggie 6. Four of the five nouns denote males; therefore, the results indicate that males are usually described via the adjectival near-synonym nice. The top list measured by MI-score includes one female aspect tits and it is the only body-related item.
The top two nouns of the list measured by MI-score states that not only human beings are referred to as nice but also animals, especially dogs in diminutive terms.
The focus of the dictionary entries of nice in terms of liking was confirmed by both analyses; however, the definitions might include that human beings and animals can be described as nice. The notion of attraction as stated in the dictionary entries refers more frequently to males and only body parts of females may be described as nice.
This differentiation could also be included in more detailed dictionary entries. The only evidence in the COCA for the meaning of nice as precise and accurate is the proper noun Nice clinical guidelines, the name of a magazine. Therefore, one may concluded that this notion is not the most important in the meaning of the adjectival near-synonym.
Top lists of kind measured by raw frequency and MI-score raw frequency MI-score words words 67 5. The top list measured by raw frequency already gives an accurate picture of the common nominal collocations of the near-synonym kind. The analysis confirms the definitions of the dictionary entries which stress the association of the adjective kind with human beings since eyes are a part of the human body and words can only be uttered by humans.
Table 11 presents the top lists of the near-synonym lovely. Top lists of lovely measured by raw frequency and MI-score raw frequency MI-score woman ladies 6. The top list measured by MI-score reveals another evidence for this assumption since it 22 includes the nominal collocate gown which refers to a special dress for females.
It could be added to the definitions that lovely is rather used for describing the female sex. Next, the top lists of friendly are examined. Top lists of friendly measured by raw frequency and MI-score raw frequency MI-score fire banter 7.
Whereas the nominal collocates of the top list measured by raw frequency present words which denote human beings people and parts of their body, especially the head face, smilethe nouns of the top list measured by MI-score rather describe the relationship between humans.
The majority of the nouns of the MI-score top list referring to the relationship between human beings have a rather negative connotation rivalry, confines, persuasion. However, friendly is used to convert these negative connoted concepts into more positively associated ideas.
This issue could be added to the dictionary definitions of friendly. Top lists of gorgeous measured by raw frequency and MI-score raw frequency MI-score woman hunk 83 8. However, the top list measured by MI-score does not confirm this assumption since the top nominal collocation actually refers to the male sex.
Furthermore, the MI-score top list reveals that gorgeous is commonly used for modifying nouns which refer to nature and arts. The dictionary definition of gorgeous implies the notion of beauty; this is confirmed by the corpus-based collocational analysis. Nevertheless, the reference works might specify the usage and state that the notion of beauty is implied for human beings, nature and arts. In table 14 the top lists measured by raw frequency and MI-score are compared for pleasant.
Top lists of pleasant measured by raw frequency and MI-score raw frequency MI-score surprise surprises 7. This indicates a strong connection between the adjective pleasant and the noun surprise. Furthermore, the top list measured by MI-score suggests a strong collocation between the adjectival near-synonym and different terms of smell.
Therefore, the dictionaries should proclaim other more prominent collocations than pleasant weather. The analyses of the nominal collocations showed that lexicographers might overthink and change the examples of common expressions and state more salient collocations in order to clarify the peripheral semantic differences between the adjectival near-synonyms. This is especially important for learners of English of second language learners who are unfamiliar with these rather fixed phrases.
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When the dictionaries state these frequent collocations, foreign language learners prime the adjectives in that particular way. Consequently, their lexical priming is more similar to the priming of native speakers and the language learners acquire the different nuances in meaning of the adjectival near-synonyms. As already stated in chapter 2. Furthermore, the register distribution pattern reveals important information for learners of English as a second or foreign languages since it is rather difficult for them to use the words in the appropriate register Liu Therefore, another vital aspect, which should be mentioned in the dictionary entries, is which near-synonym is used in a rather formal and which in a more informal or colloquial register.
For the register distribution pattern of the six adjectival near-synonyms I queried the COCA across the five provided register fiction, newspaper, magazine, academic writing, spoken. A scale of formality was established for the five registers provided by the COCA.
The scale reaches from most formal 25 to least formal and proposes this order: The starting point for the analysis of the register distributional pattern formed the top list nominal collocations measured by MI-score. The COCA was queried for each of the six adjectives, again collocating with nouns 0 before the node and 4 after the node and the results were sorted by relevance MI-score.
The top nominal collocations were examined in which register they most frequently occur. These observations form the basis for the following assumptions: The top list nominal collocations with the adjectival near-synonym nice mostly appear in the fiction genre. This genre is the second least formal register according to the scale stated above.
The nominal collocations with kind rather occur in the spoken genre — the least formal register. Lovely equally occurs in the spoken and the fiction genre. The nominal collocations with friendly, however, are most frequently used in the newspaper genre which is considered to be a rather higher.
Gorgeous appears mostly in the magazine and fiction genre and the nominal collocations with pleasant are rather used in the magazine genre. All in all, the six adjectival near-synonyms are rarely used in more formal registers and there are only exceptional instances in which the adjectives occur in the most formal register of academic writing.
This information should also be included in the dictionary definitions to give a complete picture of the usage patterns of the near-synonyms. Limitations of the study The presented study must be considered as a starting point for further investigation of this particular set of adjectival near-synonyms.VOCABULARY: How to use synonyms
To complete the corpus-based behavioural profile of the near-synonyms nice, kind, lovely, friendly, gorgeous and pleasant one would have to examine not only the nominal collocations but also the verbal and adverbial collocations and the syntactic patterns of the adjectives, for example, the articles preceding the attributively used adjectives.
In retrospect, the categorisation of the nominal collocates into the lexical patterns was vague and did not give the expected insights into the usage differences of the adjectival near-synonyms. Presumably, the classification into abstract and concrete nouns would have been more precise and appropriate. Moreover, one would have gained more insight into the peripheral semantic traits of the near- synonyms if they had been divided into pairs because two lexical items are far easier to 26 compare at the time than six adjectives.
Another limitation was the inclusion of the near- synonym kind since it restricted the number of items in the top lists of the nominal collocations. If a longer top list could have been compared, more differences in the usage patterns would have become evident.
Conclusion The corpus-based research proved to be a successful method for describing a new set of adjectival near-synonyms and identified meaning differentiating traits of the words nice, kind, lovely, friendly, gorgeous and pleasant via an analysis of the nominal collocations and the stylistic variation.
The study showed that the existing dictionary definitions are overgeneralised and consequently, not sufficient to explain the meaning differences between the six adjectives. Hence the study suggests ways to complement the dictionary entries with more frequently used expressions and collocations. It seems that the reference works were only comprised via collocation analysis of the near-synonyms measured by raw frequency since the results of this part of the study reflect the picture given in the dictionaries, namely, that the six adjectives are intersubstitutable and that they modify the same type of nouns.
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