Cousin marriage - Wikipedia
Tom and Hermione belong to the same generation; as children of siblings, they are first cousins. So far, so good: first cousin relationships are. Cousin marriage is marriage between cousins Opinions and practice vary widely across the Children of first-cousin marriages may have an increased risk of genetic disorders, particularly if their parents both strengthen family ties, and maintain family structure or a closer relationship between the wife and her in- laws. (If two people are first cousins, the children of each of the people will be are at different generation levels, then here is the way to compute their relationship.
According to Korotayev, a systematic acceptance of parallel-cousin marriage took place when Islamization occurred together with Arabization.
Muslim Hausa practice cousin marriage preferentially, and polygyny is allowed if the husband can support multiple wives. She recounts in the book that her good friend married the friend's first cross cousin.
These included not only cousin marriages, but also uncle-niece unions. Reportedly, it is a custom that in such marriages at least one spouse must be a relative, and generally such spouses were the preferred or favorite wives in the marriage and gave birth to more children.
However, this was not a general study of Yoruba, but only of highly polygynous Yoruba residing in Oka Akoko. Men are forbidden to marry within their own patrilineage or those of their mother or father's mother and must marry outside their own village.
Igbo are almost entirely Christian, having converted heavily under colonialism. The prospect of a man marrying a former wife's "sister" was seen as incest, and conversely for a woman and her former husband's "brother". Only Austria, Hungary, and Spain banned cousin marriage throughout the 19th century, with dispensations being available from the government in the last two countries.
The writings of Scottish deputy commissioner for lunacy Arthur Mitchell claiming that cousin marriage had injurious effects on offspring were largely contradicted by researchers such as Alan Huth and George Darwin.
Later studies by George Darwin found results that resemble those estimated today. His father, Charles Darwin, who did marry his first cousin, had initially speculated that cousin marriage might pose serious risks, but perhaps in response to his son's work, these thoughts were omitted from a later version of the book they published.
When a question about cousin marriage was eventually considered in for the census, according to George Darwin, it was rejected on the grounds that the idle curiosity of philosophers was not to be satisfied.
Anthropologist Jack Goody said that cousin marriage was a typical pattern in Rome, based on the marriage of four children of Emperor Constantine to their first cousins and on writings by Plutarch and Livy indicating the proscription of cousin marriage in the early Republic. Such marriages carried no social stigma in the late Republic and early Empire.
They cite the example of Cicero attacking Mark Antony not on the grounds of cousin marriage, but instead on grounds of Antony's divorce.
Shaw and Saller propose in their thesis of low cousin marriage rates that as families from different regions were incorporated into the imperial Roman nobility, exogamy was necessary to accommodate them and to avoid destabilizing the Roman social structure.
Their data from tombstones further indicate that in most of the western empire, parallel-cousin marriages were not widely practiced among commoners, either.
Cousin - Wikipedia
Jack Goody claimed that early Christian marriage rules forced a marked change from earlier norms to deny heirs to the wealthy and thus to increase the chance that those with wealth would will their property to the Church. Shaw and Saller, however, believe that the estates of aristocrats without heirs had previously been claimed by the emperor, and that the Church merely replaced the emperor.
Their view is that the Christian injunctions against cousin marriage were due more to ideology than to any conscious desire to acquire wealth.
Marcus Aurelius also married his maternal first cousin Faustina the Youngerand they had 13 children. Cousin marriage was more frequent in Ancient Greeceand marriages between uncle and niece were also permitted there. A Greek woman who became epiklerosor heiress with no brothers, was obliged to marry her father's nearest male kin if she had not yet married and given birth to a male heir.
First in line would be either her father's brothers or their sons, followed by her father's sisters' sons. From the seventh century, the Irish Church only recognized four degrees of prohibited kinshipand civil law fewer. This persisted until after the Norman conquests in the 11th century and the synod at Cashel in This led to a gradual shift in concern from affinal unions, like those between a man and his deceased wife's sister, to consanguineous unions.
By the s, Lewis Henry Morgan — was writing about "the advantages of marriages between unrelated persons" and the necessity of avoiding "the evils of consanguine marriage", avoidance of which would "increase the vigor of the stock". The removal of the cousin relationship is the number of generations the cousins are apart. When the cousins are separated by a different number of generations from the most recent common ancestor, the cousin relationship is removed. The difference between the number of generations for each cousin is the removal.
Note that two people can be removed but be around the same age due to differences in birth dates of parents children and other relevant ancestors.
If the cousins are removed, the smaller number of generations to the most recent common ancestor is used to determine the degree of the cousin relationship. If one had to go back two generations beyond the parents great grandparents and the other had to go back two or more they would be second cousins  . Multiplicities[ edit ] Double cousins arise when two siblings of one family mate with two siblings of another family.
What are my cousins kids to mine? LOL
This may also be referred to as 'cousins on both sides. Double first cousins share both sets of grandparents and have twice the degree of consanguinity of ordinary first cousins.
Half cousins are descended from half siblings. The children of two half siblings are first half cousins. If half siblings have children with another pair of half siblings, the resulting children would be double first half cousins. Gendered relationships[ edit ] A maternal cousin is a cousin that is related to the mother's side of the family, while a paternal cousin is a cousin that is related to the father's side of the family. Unlike all the other cousin relationships discussed thus far, this relationship is not necessarily reciprocal, as the maternal cousin of one person could be the paternal cousin of the other.