Pliny the Elder, Pliny The Younger - Crystalinks
But first, a little bit of background. Pliny the Elder, clocking in at % ABV, is nearly always available, while Pliny the Younger ( ABV). After his father's death Pliny was brought up by his uncle, Pliny the Elder, the author of a famous encyclopaedia on natural history. In 79 AD, he witnessed the . Born into a wealthy family and adopted by his uncle, Pliny the Elder, Pliny began to practice law at His reputation in the civil-law courts placed him in demand.
His most notable success was securing condemnation of a governor in Africa and a group of officials from Spain. Meanwhile he had attained the highest administrative posts, becoming praetor 93 and consul Pliny had financial ability and successively headed the military treasury and the senatorial treasury 94— After administering the drainage board of the city of Rome —he was sent c.
Between and he published nine books of selected, private letters, beginning with those covering events from the death of Emperor Domitian October 97 to the early part of The private letters are carefully written, occasional letters on diverse topics.
Pliny the Younger is here: What you need to know about craft beer's most famous brew
Each holds an item of recent social, literary, political, or domestic news, or sometimes an account of an earlier but contemporary historical event, or else initiates moral discussion of a problem.
The circumstances of this duty and whether or not it had anything to do with his probable avoidance of Nero have disappeared with the work. Meanwhile, he was completing the 20 books of his History of the German Wars, the only authority expressly quoted in the first six books of the Annals of Tacitus  and probably one of the principal authorities for the same author's Germania.
It disappeared in favor of the writings of Tacitus which are far shorterand, early in the fifth century, Symmachus had little hope of finding a copy.
Pliny devoted much of his time to writing on the comparatively safe subjects of grammar and rhetoric.Pliny the Elder and Nero - Professor Matthew Leigh
Pliny the Younger says of it: These are both now lost works. He committed suicide, and the reign of terror was at an end, as was the interlude in Pliny's obligation to the state.
Bust of VespasianPushkin MuseumMoscow At the end of AD 69, after a year of civil war consequent on the death of Nero, Vespasiana successful general, became emperor. Like Pliny, he had come from the equestrian class, rising through the ranks of the army and public offices and defeating the other contenders for the highest office.
His main tasks were to re-establish peace under imperial control and to place the economy on a sound footing. He needed in his administration all the loyalty and assistance he could find. Pliny, apparently trusted without question, perhaps reading between the lines recommended by Vespasian's son Titus, was put to work immediately and was kept in a continuous succession of the most distinguished procuratorships, according to Suetonius.
The empire was perpetually short of, and was always seeking, office holders for its numerous offices. Throughout the latter stages of Pliny's life, he maintained good relations with Emperor Vespasian.
As is written in the first line of Pliny the Younger's avunculus meus: Ante lucem ibat ad Vespasianum imperatorem nam ille quoque noctibus utebaturdeinde ad officium sibi delegatum "Before dawn he was going to the Emperor Vespasian for he also made use of the nightthen he did the other duties assigned to him".
BBC - History - Historic Figures: Pliny the Younger (c AD - c AD)
In this passage, Pliny the Younger conveys to Tacitus that his uncle was ever the academic, always working. The word ibat imperfect, "he used to go" gives a sense of repeated or customary action. In the subsequent text, he mentions again how most of his uncle's day was spent working, reading, and writing.
He notes that Pliny "was indeed a very ready sleeper, sometimes dropping off in the middle of his studies and then waking up again. However, two does not satisfy Suetonius' description of a continuous succession. He seems to have a "familiarity with the provincia", which, however, might otherwise be explained. The procuratorship of Hispania Tarraconensis was next. A statement by Pliny the Younger that his uncle was offeredsesterces for his manuscripts by Larcius Licinius while he Pliny the Elder was procurator of Hispania makes it the most certain of the three.
He stops short of mentioning them all for fear of "wearying the reader". The capital of the province was Augusta Treverorum Triernamed for the Treveri surrounding it.
Pliny says that in "the year but one before this" a severe winter killed the first crops planted by the Treviri; they sowed again in March and had "a most abundant harvest. Using 77 as the date of composition Syme  arrives at AD as the date of the procuratorship, when Pliny is presumed to have witnessed these events. The argument is based entirely on presumptions; nevertheless, this date is required to achieve Suetonius' continuity of procuratorships, if the one in Gallia Belgica occurred.
Pliny was allowed home Rome at some time in AD 75— He was presumably at home for the first official release of Natural History in Whether he was in Rome for the dedication of Vespasian's Temple of Peace in the Forum in 75, which was in essence a museum for display of art works plundered by Nero and formerly adorning the Domus Aurea, is uncertain, as is his possible command of the vigiles night watchmena lesser post.
No actual post is discernible for this period. On the bare circumstances, he was an official agent of the emperor in a quasiprivate capacity. Perhaps he was between posts. In any case, his appointment as prefect of the fleet at Misenum took him there, where he resided with his sister and nephew.
Pliny the Younger (c.61 AD - c.112 AD)
Vespasian died of disease on June 23, Pliny outlived him by two months. Noted author[ edit ] During Nero's reign of terror, Pliny avoided working on any writing that would attract attention to himself. His works on oratory in the last years of Nero's reign 67, 68 focused on form rather than on content. He began working on content again probably after Vespasian's rule began in AD 69, when the terror clearly was over and would not be resumed.
It was to some degree reinstituted and later cancelled by his son Titus when Vespasian suppressed the philosophers at Rome, but not Pliny, who was not among them, representing, as he says, something new in Rome, an encyclopedist certainly, a venerable tradition outside Italy. In his next work, he "completed the history which Aufidius Bassus left unfinished, and He had begun his history with some unknown date, certainly before the death of Cicero,  so probably the Civil Wars or the death of Julius Caesarending with the reign of Tiberius.
It was cut short when Bassus died slowly of a lingering disease, with such spirit and objectivity that Seneca remarked that Bassus seemed to treat it as someone else's dying. Pliny's continuation of Bassus's History was one of the authorities followed by Suetonius and Plutarch. He is mentioned concerning the loyalty of Burruscommander of the Praetorian Guardwhom Nero removed for disloyalty. Pliny seems to have known it was going to be controversial, as he deliberately reserved it for publication after his death: By this means I confer an obligation on those who occupy the same ground with myself; and also on posterity, who, I am aware, will contend with me, as I have done with my predecessors.
Natural History Pliny Pliny's last work, according to his nephew, was the Naturalis Historia literally "Natural History"an encyclopedia into which he collected much of the knowledge of his time.
His sources were personal experience, his own prior works such as the work on Germanyand extracts from other works. These extracts were collected in the following manner: One servant would read aloud, and another would write the extract as dictated by Pliny.
He is said to have dictated extracts while taking a bath. In winter, he furnished the copier with gloves and long sleeves so his writing hand would not stiffen with cold Pliny the Younger in avunculus meus.
A memorial erected in Como now CIL V, repeats the terms of a will by which the aedile Lucius Caecilius Cilo, son of Lucius, established a fund, the interest of which was to buy oil used for soap for the baths of the people of Como. The trustees are apparently named in the inscription: Caecilius Valens and P.
Caecilius Secundus, sons of Lucius, and the contubernalis Lutulla. The first man mentioned, L. Caecilius Valens, is probably the older son.
Pliny the Younger confirms  that he was a trustee for the largess "of my ancestors".