# What is a quantitative relationship in science

### quantitative relation - Dictionary Definition : teenbooks.info

Your goal in conducting quantitative research study is to determine the relationship between one thing [an independent variable] and another [a dependent or. Quantitative means measuring a quantity - putting a value to something. For example, you might measure the rate of a reaction by seeing how. Proportionality and quantitative relationships in physics Cassells J R T and Johnstone A H Words That Matter in Science (London: Royal Society of.

Bibliography Definition Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques. Quantitative research focuses on gathering numerical data and generalizing it across groups of people or to explain a particular phenomenon.

The Practice of Social Research. Wadsworth Cengage, ; Muijs, Daniel. Characteristics of Quantitative Research Your goal in conducting quantitative research study is to determine the relationship between one thing [an independent variable] and another [a dependent or outcome variable] within a population.

## Quantitative research

Quantitative research designs are either descriptive [subjects usually measured once] or experimental [subjects measured before and after a treatment]. A descriptive study establishes only associations between variables; an experimental study establishes causality.

Quantitative research deals in numbers, logic, and an objective stance. Quantitative research focuses on numeric and unchanging data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent reasoning [i.

Its main characteristics are: The data is usually gathered using structured research instruments.

The results are based on larger sample sizes that are representative of the population. The research study can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high reliability.

Researcher has a clearly defined research question to which objective answers are sought. All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected. Data are in the form of numbers and statistics, often arranged in tables, charts, figures, or other non-textual forms. Project can be used to generalize concepts more widely, predict future results, or investigate causal relationships. Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or computer software, to collect numerical data.

The overarching aim of a quantitative research study is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed.

- Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Quantitative Methods
- Proportionality and quantitative relationships in physics
- What do quantitative and qualitative measurements mean in science?

Things to keep in mind when reporting the results of a study using quantitative methods: Explain the data collected and their statistical treatment as well as all relevant results in relation to the research problem you are investigating.

Interpretation of results is not appropriate in this section. Report unanticipated events that occurred during your data collection.

### What do quantitative and qualitative measurements mean in science? | Socratic

Explain how the actual analysis differs from the planned analysis. Explain your handling of missing data and why any missing data does not undermine the validity of your analysis.

**Direct and Inverse Relationships**

Explain the techniques you used to "clean" your data set. Choose a minimally sufficient statistical procedure; provide a rationale for its use and a reference for it.

### Stoichiometry (Quantitative relationship between reactants and products) - Online Science Notes

Specify any computer programs used. Describe the assumptions for each procedure and the steps you took to ensure that they were not violated.

When using inferential statistics, provide the descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, and sample sizes for each variable as well as the value of the test statistic, its direction, the degrees of freedom, and the significance level [report the actual p value].

Avoid inferring causality, particularly in nonrandomized designs or without further experimentation.

Use tables to provide exact values; use figures to convey global effects. Keep figures small in size; include graphic representations of confidence intervals whenever possible.

## Stoichiometry (Quantitative relationship between reactants and products)

Always tell the reader what to look for in tables and figures. Then according to the law of constant or definite proportion, the ratio a: The law of multiple proportions: This law was put forward by Dalton in This law states that if two elements combine to give two or more different chemical compounds, then the weight of one of the elements, which combine with the fixed weight of the other, always show numerical ratio to one another.

The different weights of oxygen i. The law of reciprocal proportion: This law was put forward by Richter in The law states that two or more elements, which combine separately with the fixed weight of another element, are either the same or the simple multiples of the weights of the elements when they combine among themselves. In the field of climate science, researchers compile and compare statistics such as temperature or atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Empirical relationships and associations are also frequently studied by using some form of general linear modelnon-linear model, or by using factor analysis. A fundamental principle in quantitative research is that correlation does not imply causationalthough some such as Clive Granger suggest that a series of correlations can imply a degree of causality. This principle follows from the fact that it is always possible a spurious relationship exists for variables between which covariance is found in some degree.

Associations may be examined between any combination of continuous and categorical variables using methods of statistics. Measurement[ edit ] Views regarding the role of measurement in quantitative research are somewhat divergent. Measurement is often regarded as being only a means by which observations are expressed numerically in order to investigate causal relations or associations.

However, it has been argued that measurement often plays a more important role in quantitative research. This is because accepting a theory based on results of quantitative data could prove to be a natural phenomenon.

He argued that such abnormalities are interesting when done during the process of obtaining data, as seen below: When measurement departs from theory, it is likely to yield mere numbers, and their very neutrality makes them particularly sterile as a source of remedial suggestions.

But numbers register the departure from theory with an authority and finesse that no qualitative technique can duplicate, and that departure is often enough to start a search Kuhn,p.

In classical physics, the theory and definitions which underpin measurement are generally deterministic in nature.

In contrast, probabilistic measurement models known as the Rasch model and Item response theory models are generally employed in the social sciences. Psychometrics is the field of study concerned with the theory and technique for measuring social and psychological attributes and phenomena.